[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

ab Owain 1988Stefan ab Owain, Geirfa’r Mwynwyr, Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1988, ISBN 0863811140
Adnabod Ardudwy 2009Newsletter No. 2 (Summer 2009) of the Adnabod Ardudwy project
Allen & Jackson 1985aP M Allen & A A Jackson, Geological excursions in the Harlech Dome, British Geological Survey, London: HMSO, 1985, ISBN 0118842854
Allen & Jackson 1985bP M Allen & A A Jackson, Geology of the Country Round Harlech, British Geological Survey, London: HMSO, 1985, ISBN 0118843672
Barmouth and County
The Barmouth and County Advertiser and District Weekly News
Beazley 1985Elisabeth Beazley, Madocks and the Wonder of Wales, Second Edition, P & Q, 1985, ISBN 0951074806
Bebb 2001R Bebb, ‘ “25th December 1899: Christmas Day Lost”: Furniture Making in Merioneth’, Journal of the Merioneth Historical and Record Society, vol 13 part 4 (2001), ISSN 13538632
Bennett & Vernon 2002John Bennett & Robert Vernon, Metal Mines of Llanengan, Appleton: Gwydyr Mines Publications, 2002, ISBN 0951479881
BGS 1982British Geological Survey, Harlech Sheet 135 and part of Barmouth Sheet 149 London: HMSO, 1982
Bick 1990David Bick, The Old Metal Mines of Mid Wales: Parts 4 & 5 West Montgomeryshire, Aberdovey, Dinas Mawddwy and Llangyngyog, Newent: Pound House, 2nd edition 1990, ISBN 0906885078
Bick 1991David Bick, The Old Metal Mines of Mid Wales, Newent: Pound House, 1991, ISBN 0906885086
Biringuccio 1540Biringuccio, Vannoccio, Pirotechnia, translated and edited by Cyril Stanley Smith & Martha Teach Gnudi, New York: Dover Publications, 1990, ISBN 0486261344
Boyd 1970J I C Boyd, Narrow Gauge Railways In Mid-Wales, Oakwood Press, 1970, ISBN 085361024X
Boyd 1975J I C Boyd, The Festiniog Railway, Oakwood Press, 1975
Brown 1997G Brown, 1997, A field investigation and survey at Hartshill Hayes. RCHME report
Brown 2002I J Brown, conversation June 2002
Brown 2007I J Brown, ‘Coal Mining Landscapes – Underground’, Mining in the Landscape (NAMHO 2006 Conference Proceedings), p. 46, Shropshire Caving and Mining Club, 2007
Browne & Theobald 1911J H B Browne, H Conacher & H S Theobald, The Law of Railway Companies, Fourth Edition, London: Stevens & Sons, 1911
Burt 2001R Burt, ‘Fraternity and Business Networking in the British Non-ferrous Metal Mining Industry in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, paper presented to the CHN Conference 2001: Mining; Communities and Culture
Burt, Waite & Burnley 1986R Burt, P Waite & R Burnley, The Mines of Cardiganshire: Metalliferous and Associated Minerals 1845–1913, Department of Economic History, University of Exeter in association with Northern Mine Research Society, 1986(?), ISBN 0950762458
Burt & Wilkie 1984R Burt & I Wilkie, ‘Manganese Mining in the South West of England’ Journal of the Trevithick Society, No. 11 (1984), pp. 18–40
Cambrian NewsThe Cambrian News and Merionethshire Standard
Carnarvon and Denbigh
Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald and North and South Wales Independent
Carnarvon TradersCarnarvon Traders website (Carnarvon trade directories)
ChambersChambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Arts, London
Chapman 1975W A J Chapman, Workshop Technology Part 3, Third Edition, London: Edward Arnold, 1981, ISBN 0713132698
Chapman 1976W A J Chapman, Workshop Technology Part 1, Fifth Edition, London: Edward Arnold, 1983, ISBN 0713132698
Clements 2005Diane Clements, Director The Library and Museum of Freemasonry, correspondence June 2005
Cook 2013A F Cook, 2013 ‘Purley Chase Manganese Mine, Mancetter, Warwickshire’ Mining History 18:5, 1-6
Conveyance 1960Conveyance 31 May 1960 between Margaret Ellen Price of Llys Mynach Barmouth Widow and Megan Llewelyn Lewis of Fron Heulog Uplands Swansea the wife of John Lewis Medical Practitioner (‘the Vendors’) and Hugh Williams of Branksome Farm Barmouth Farmer (‘the Purchaser’)
Cope 2012Pam Cope, conversation February 2012, reporting information from Ian Corp via Gwyneth Edwards
Cotterell 2006Tom Cotterell, National Museum Wales, correspondence April 2006
Crew 2002P Crew, Snowdonia National Park Environmental Studies Centre, correspondence April 2002
Craik 2004David Craik, Harlech Historical Society, conversation September 2004
CROCumbria Archive and Local Studies Centre (Cumbria Record Office), Barrow
Davies 2007Russell Davies from London, comment on BBC Wales north west website Mining manganese
Davis 2002D Davies, conversation June 2002
Dewey & Bromehead 1915H Dewey & C E N Bromehead, Memoirs of The Geological Survey, Special Reports on Mineral Resources, Mineral Resources of Great Britain: Tungsten and Manganese Ores, London: HMSO (1915)
Dewey & Dines 1923H Dewey & H G Dines, Memoirs of The Geological Survey, Special Reports on Mineral Resources, Mineral Resources of Great Britain: Tungsten and Manganese Ores, London: HMSO, 3rd edition (1923)
Dewey & Smith 1922H Dewey & B Smith, Memoirs of The Geological Survey, Special Reports on Mineral Resources. vol. 23, Lead and Zinc Ores in the Pre-Carboniferous Rocks of West Shropshire and North Wales. Part II. North Wales, London: HMSO
Down 1980C G Down, The Manganese Mines of North Wales, British Mining No. 14, Northern Mine Research Society, 1980, ISBN 0901450170
Edwards 1991Idris Edwards, ‘Gwaith Mango’ Llais Ardudwy, Rhifyn 183, Dyffryn Ardudwy, 1991
Enc Brit 1911Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition [Editor Hugh Chisholm.], Cambridge, University Press, 1911
Evans 1874T F Evans, HM Inspector of Metalliferous Mines report 1874
Evans 2002E Evans, Gwynedd Library Service, Dolgellau, conversation February 2002
Fermor 1945Lewis L Fermor 1945, ‘Manganese in Industry’, Procedings SWIE, vol. LXI pp. 27–51
Flintshire ObserverFlintshire Observer Mining Journal and General Advertiser for the Counties of Flint Denbigh
FRO referenceFlintshire Record Office e.g. [FRO: XD/35/420] is Flintshire Record Office item D/DM/448/84
Foster 1886Clement Le Neve Foster, Manganese Mining in Merioneth, London: 1886, Paper read before Section C (Geology), British Association, Birmingham, 1886, Printed by Spottiswoode and Co. (For an abstract see Geological Magazine, 1887, p 38.)
Gardner & Cooke 1971W Gardner & E I Cooke, Chemical Synonyms and Trade Names, London: The Technical Press Ltd, 7th ed. 1971, SBN 291393543
GAS/X/NWQU 5North Wales Quarrymens Union GAS/X/NWQU 5, Cofnod Cynghor Gweithiol (Minutes of the Management Council), 25 August 1917
GAS CAO referenceGwynedd Archive Services, Caernarfon Archive Office
e.g. [GAS CAO: XD/35/420] is Caernarfon Archive Office item XD/35/420
GAS DAO referenceGwynedd Archive Services, Dolgellau Archive Office
GAT SMR referenceGwynedd Archaeological Trust, Sites and Monuments Record
e.g. [GAT SMR: 20577] is Gwynedd Archaeological Trust Sites and Monuments Record 20577
Geary 2001K Geary, Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, correspondence December 2001
George 1961T N George, British Regional Geology: North Wales, London: HMSO, 3rd edition 1961 (1st edition 1935 by Smith, B and George, T N)
Giffin 2002Maurice Giffin, Harlech Historical Society, conversation May 2002
Giffin 2003Maurice Giffin, Harlech Historical Society, correspondence February 2003
Glasby 1974G P Glasby, ‘A geochemical study of the manganese ore deposits of the Harlech Dome, North Wales’, Journal of Earth Science, Vol 8, pp. 445–450, 1974
Green 1996C C Green, The Coast Lines of the Cambrian Railways, Vol II, Dovey Junction to Dolgelly, Didcot: Wild Swan Publications, 1996, ISBN 1874103291
Groves 1952A W Groves, Wartime investigations into the haematite and manganese ore resources of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ministry of Supply Monographs, No. 20-703, London: 1952
Gwyn 1998D Rh Gwyn, Gwynedd Metal Mines Survey: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust Report 291, Bangor: Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, 1998
Gwyn 2001D Rh Gwyn, Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, correspondence December 2001
Hall 1986George W Hall, The Gold Mines of Merioneth, Kington: Griffin Publications, 1986?, ISBN 0950211672
Hall 2006George W Hall, conversation April 2006
Hall 2008aGeorge W Hall, Welsh Mines Society Newsletter No 58, Spring 2008, p. 22 (item 36)
Hall 2008bGeorge W Hall, conversation July 2008
Halse 1887E Halse, ‘On the occurrence of manganese ore in the Cambrian rocks of Merionethshire’, North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Transactions, vol 36 (1886–7), pp 103–116, pls XVI–XIX (Paper read 23rd April, 1887)
Halse 1892E Halse, ‘Notes on the occurrence of manganese ore near the Arenigs, Merionethshire’, Federated Institution of Mining Engineers, Transactions, vol 3 (1891–2), pp 940–952 (Paper read 6th August, 1892)
Hawthorne & Smith 1979John G Hawthorne & Cyril Stanley Smith, translation of Theophilus’s Treatise (On Divers Arts), New York: Dover Publications, 1979, ISBN 0486237842
Hawkins 2006Alan Hawkins, Welsh Mines Society Newsletter No 53, Winter 2006, p. 24 (item 54)
Holmes 1999Alan Holmes, Slates from Abergynolwyn, Caernarfon: Gwynedd Archive Services 1999, ISBN 0901337730
Holmes 2003Alan Holmes, correspondence June 2003
Hopkinson 2002John Hopkinson, conversation June 2002
Hughes 2005Simon J S Hughes, Lost Mines in Mid-Wales (provisional title), unpublished work
Hoover & Hoover 1912Herbert Clark Hoover & Lou Henry Hoover, translation of Agricola’s De Re Metalica, New York: Dover Publications, 1950, ISBN 0486600068 (originally published in The Mining Magazine, London, 1912)
IMnIInternational Manganese Institute About Manganese and the History of Manganese
Jones & Gwyn 1989Eric Jones and David Gwyn, 1989, Dolgarog: An Industrial History, Caernarfon: Gwynedd County Council Archives and Museums Service, ISBN 0901337501
James 2003David James, correspondence July 2003
Jones, A 2003Anne Jones, correspondence April 2003
Jones, G 2002 Geraint Jones, Talybont, conversation November 2002
Jones, G 2003Geraint Jones, Talybont, conversation and sight of a transcription of the diary for 1845 of Morris Jones, Graig Isaf, Cwm Nantcol
Jones, W 2006Bill Jones, Glanypwll, conversation January 2006
Jones, 2009Jones, Graig Isaf, Cwm Nantcol, conversation August 2009
Lancaster 2005John B Lancaster Jr., Chesapeake, Virginia, USA, correspondence June 2005 concerning Lancaster family history
Layzell Ward 2002Patricia Lazell Ward, Minfordd, correspondence December 2002 concerning manganese-related material in Ffestiniog Railway archives
Llangollen AdvertiserLlangollen Advertiser, Denbighshire, Merionethshire and North Wales Journal
Levy et al 2004Levy, Aitken, Holmes, Hughes, Hurley, Rumsby, Searl, Shuker, Spurgeon and Warren, Institute for Environment and Health/Institute of Occupational Medicine (2004) Occupational exposure limits: Criteria document for manganese and inorganic manganese compounds (Web Report W17), Leicester, UK, MRC Institute for Environment and Health, available at
Lewis 1833A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, S Lewis & Co., London, 1833
Lewis 2002M J T Lewis, correspondence June 2002 concerning unpublished research in the PRO and elsewhere, 1982
Link 1979Roy C Link, ‘Narrow Gauge Railway Details’ Journal of the Merioneth Railway Society Merioneth Mercury, No. 16 March 1979, pp. 7–14
Linton 2009David J Linton, ‘A Future Prospect: Mining History Publication in the Digital Age’ The Lode of History (Welsh Mines and Mining No. 1), pp. 109–113, WMS 2009
Linton 2009David J Linton, ‘Merioneth Manganese’ 50 years of Mine Exploration: Proceedings of the 2011 NAMHO Conference, pp. 81–93, SCMC 2014
Llais ArdudwyLlais Ardudwy (Dyffryn Ardudwy area Welsh language local newspaper), Tal-y-bont, Gwynedd
Lynas 1973B D T Lynas, ‘Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Migneint area, North Wales’, Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol 129, pp 481–503, 1979
LWI 1999Llanfair Women’s Institute, ‘Llanfair is my Dwelling Place’ Llandysul: Gomer Press, 1999
Mason 2005J S Mason, correspondence September 2005
MJMining Journal, London
Morris 2003J H Morris, Welsh Mines Society Newsletter No 49, Winter 2003, pp. 27–28
Morrison 1974T A Morrison, ‘A Brief History of the Merioneth Manganese Industry’, Industrial Archaeology vol 11 no. 1, pp. 29–32, February 1974
Morrison 1975T A Morrison, Goldmining in Western Merioneth, Llandysul: Gomerian Press, for Merioneth Historical and Record Society, 1975, SBN 850882818
NLW MAP referenceNational Library of Wales map
NLW MS referenceNational Library of Wales manuscript
North Wales ChronicleThe North Wales Chronicle and Advertiser for the Principality
North Wales ExpressThe North Wales Express
OS 1st ednOrdnance Survey 6" map of Merioneth First Edition (sheet number shown in roman numerals, year of survey shown in parentheses) Sheets published individually 1889–1890.
OS 2nd ednOrdnance Survey 6" map of Merioneth Second Edition (sheet number shown in roman numerals, year of revision shown in parentheses). Sheets published individually 1901–1902.
OS 2nd edn 25"Ordnance Survey 25" map of Merioneth Second Edition (sheet number shown in roman numerals, year of revision shown in parentheses).
OS 1918 sheet numberOrdnance Survey One-Inch Map of England and Wales (full revision 1918 published 1947)
OS 1985Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Outdoor Leisure map 18, Snowdonia: Harlech & Bala areas, edition B, 1985, ISBN 0319260186
OS 2000Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Outdoor Leisure map 18, Harlech, Porthmadog & Bala, edition D, 2000, ISBN 0319260968
Parry 2010Rhian Parry, correspondence December 2010
Pritchard 2006Rhion Pritchard, correspondence August 2006
PRO ADM188 referenceThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, Records of the Admiralty, Naval Forces, Royal Marines, Coastguard, and related bodies
PRO BT referenceThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, Board of Trade e.g. [PRO BT31/5628/39227] is Files of Dissolved Companies 5628/39227
PRO Census yearThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, UK Census
PRO CRES referenceThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, Commissioners of Woods and Forests e.g. [PRO CRES25/29 10307] is minutes of Commissioners of Woods and Forests 25/29 10307
PRO LR referenceThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, Land Revenue (Exchequer), Office of Auditors of. e.g. [PRO LR1/266] is Land Revenue (Exchequer), Office of Auditors of, 1/266
PRO LRRO referenceThe National Archives of the UK, Public Record Office, Land Revenue Record Office e.g. [PRO LRRO5/32] is Land Revenue Record Office 5/32
QMJQuarry Managers’ Journal, London
Ramsey 1866A C Ramsay, The Geology of North Wales Memoirs of the Geological Survey, British Geological Survey, London: HMSO, 1866
RCAHMW CARNRoyal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Core Archaeological Record iNdex database
RCAHMW CofleinRoyal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales Coflein database
Redknap 2004Mark Redknap, ‘The Cwm Nant Col hoard’, National Museums & Galleries of Wales
Rees 1969D M Mines, Mills and Furnaces: Industrial Archaeology in Wales, London: HMSO, 1969, SBN 118800833
Richards 1970Peter S Richards, The Darwen and Mostyn Iron Company, Flintshire Historical Society Journal, Vol 24 (1969–70), pp 86–94
Richards 1991A J Richards, A Gazeteer of the Welsh Slate Industry, Llanwrst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1991, ISBN 0863811965
Roberts, D 2002Daffydd Roberts, Welsh Slate Museum, correspondence June 2002
Roberts, J 2002John Roberts, Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, conversation July 2002
Roe & Weston 2004David Roe & Neil Weston, ‘Mineral Oddity’ Welsh Mines Society Newsletter No. 51, Winter 2004, p. 10 (item 25)
Ruston 2000J Ruston, An informal photo tour of the Manganese Mines c. September 2000 (this website is no longer accessible)
Slater 1868Slater’s North Wales Directory 1868
Smith 1997R A Smith, ‘The Manganese Mines of West Merionedd [sic]’ Unpublished history dissertation, University of Wales, Bangor
Speake 2002Liz Speak, conversation December 2002
Thomas 1961Trevor M Thomas, The Mineral Wealth of Wales and its Exploitation 1961
Thomas 1999Keith Thomas, Robert Mushet, Coleford Project (Forest of Dean) website
Thomas 2004Glenys Thomas, Llanbedr, conversation September 2004
Twigg 2001G D Twigg, correspondence December 2001
Welsh GazetteeWelsh Gazette and West Wales Advertiser
Waite 2009Mark Waite, Corris Mine Explorers, conversation October 2009
Wilkinson 2003Jeremy S Wilkinson, information from Wilkinson’s gazetteer and bibliography of the Mines and Quarries of North Wales, 2003. Reference numbers, e.g. [Wilkinson 2003: 14278], refer to site (mine or quarry) identifiers in the gazetteer.
Wilkinson 2005Jeremy S Wilkinson, ‘Caernarfonshire Iron Ore’, Memoirs 2005, British Mining No. 78 p. 108, Northern Mine Research Society, 2005
Williams 1995W Williams, The Llyn Peninsular Mines, Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1995
Williams 2003Hugh Williams, Llanaber, conversation November 2003
Williams 2006Hugh Williams, Llanaber, conversation December 2006
Whitehead 2004William Whitehead, Llanbedr, conversation September 2004
Woodland 1939A W Woodland ‘The petrography and petrology of the Lower Cambrian manganese ore of West Merionethshire’, Quarterly Journal Geological Society London, vol 95, pp. 1–35, 1939
Wrexham and
Denbighshire Advertiser
Wrexham and Denbighshire Advertiser and Cheshire Shropshire and North Wales Register
Young 1954J F Young, Materials and Processes, London: Chapman & Hall Ltd, 1954

Other sources and further reading

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Mineral Statistics, (1848–1920)
Statistical appendices to Annual Reports of the Secretary for Mines and HM Chief Inspector of Mines, (1921–1928)
‘Domestic Haematite and Manganese’ Mining Magazine, Vol. 88 No. 2 (February 1953), pp. 66–67
Archer, A A, (1959) ‘The Distribution of Non-Ferrous ores in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of North Wales’ The Future of Non-Ferrous Mining in Great Britain and Ireland: a Symposium. The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. pp. 259–276, 304–311.
F A Bannister, M H Hey and W Campbell Smith, (1955) ‘Grovesite, the manganese-rich analogue of berthierine’ Mineralogical Magazine, 30, pp. 645–647.
M A Bennett, (1987) ‘The Cambrian manganese deposits of North Wales’ Unpublished Ph.D. thesis (BLDSC thesis no. D85668), University of Leeds (Department of Earth Sciences).
M A Bennett, (1987) ‘Genesis and diagenesis of the Cambrian manganese deposits, Harlech, North Wales’ Geological Journal, 22, pp. 7–18.
J L H Binstock, (1977) ‘Petrology and sedimentation of the Cambrian manganese-rich sediments of the Harlech Dome, North Wales’ Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University. (Harvard University HOLLIS Catalogue Number: 003157199)
R Burt & P Waite, An Introduction to the Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom, British Mining no. 23, Northern Mine Research Society, 1983
A H Curtis, Manganese Ores, Monographs on Mineral Resources, London: Imperial Institute, 1919 (lst edition)
H Dewey & C E N Bromehead, Memoirs of The Geological Survey, Special Reports on Mineral Resources, Mineral Resources of Great Britain: Tungsten and Manganese Ores, London: HMSO, 1st edition (1915)
Margaret Griffith, ‘Manganese Mining at Rhiw in Llyn between 1827 and 1945’, Caernarvonshire Historical Society, Transactions, vol 50 (1989)
A W Groves, Manganese Ores, Monographs on Mineral Resources, London: Imperial Institute, 2nd edition 1938
Helen B M Harris, ‘Manganese Mining in West Devon’ Tamar Journal, No. 9 (1987), pp. 20–24
P A Mohr, 1956. A geochemical study of the Lower Cambrian manganese ore of the Harlech Dome, North Wales. Symposium sobre yacimientos de manganeso, 20th International Geological Congress, Mexico Rep XX Congress Geol Int, tomo (vol) 5, Europa. pp 273–289, 1956
P A Mohr, 1964. Genesis of the Cambrian manganese carbonate rocks of North Wales. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 34, pp. 819–829
F J North, Mining for Metals in Wales, National Mueseum of Wales, Cardiff, 1962
C E Rance, ‘Occurrence of Manganese and Haematite at Nant Uchaf, near Abergele, Denbighshire, in the Old Red Sandstone or Carboniferous Basement Beds’ Manchester Geological Society Vol. XVII, p. 47
D Roberts, 1986. ‘Geochemistry of recent freshwater manganese tunnel deposits’ Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales
P M G Russell, ‘Manganese Mining in Devon’ Devon and Cornwall Notes and Queries, Vol. 31 Pt.7 (Summer 1970), pp. 205–213
R W Toll, ‘Manganese in West Devon’ Mining Magazine, Vol. XCIX No. 1 (July 1958), pp. 17–19
A W Woodland, 1935. Spessartite in the Cambrian manganese ore of Merionethshire. Geological Magazine, 72, 384.
A W Woodland, 1938. Petrological studies in the Harlech Grit Series of Merionethshire. I. Metamorphic changes in the mudstones of the Manganese Shale Group. Geological Magazine, 75, pp 366–382.
A W Woodland, ‘The manganese deposits of Great Britain’, Symposium sobre yacimientos de manganeso, 20th International Geological Congress, Mexico Rep XX Congress Geol Int, tomo (vol) 5, Europa. pp 197–218, 1956

Front page